Collection of wild Drosophila on Quelpart Island, Korea. Wallingford, UK: CABI, Map 766, CABI/EPPO, 2016. These included two larval parasitoids, Leptopilina heterotoma and Leptopilina boulardi, and two pupal parasitoids, Pachycrepoideus vindemiae (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) and Trichopria drosophilae (Hymenoptera: Diapriidae). Paris, France: EPPO. Although field captures of D. suzukii in traps indicate their presence, trapping does not appear to accurately predict infestation in all crops (Lee et al., 2012; Wilson et al., 2013; Tochen et al., 2014). A four-component synthetic attractant for Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) isolated from fermented bait headspace. Phytosanitary Alert System: First report of Drosophila suzukii in Canada. 22 (5), 776-778, 782. Female adult longevity ranged from 35 days at 10°C to 2 days at 30°C (Tochen et al., 2014). Biosecurity Australia, 2010. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. Walsh D B, Bolda M P, Goodhue R E, Dreves A J, Lee J, Bruck D J, Walton V M, O'Neal S D, Zalom F G, 2011. By contrast, Leptopilina japonica and Asobara japonica (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) were only able to attack D. suzukii larvae and pupae in fallen decaying fruits, and also attacked a wide range of drosophilid hosts (Mitsui et al., 2007; Ideo et al., 2008; Mitsui and Kimura, 2010; Novkovic et al., 2011; Kasuya et al., 2013). There are 3000 species of Drosophila, commonly known as vinegar flies, … D. subpulchrella Takamori and Watabe males’ black spots are very similar in shape and position to those of D. suzukii (Takamori et al., 2006). Strains of endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia associated with D. suzukii populations have been collected in both the USA and Italy (Siozios et al., 2013; Tochen et al., 2014). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. A small drop of dish soap added to the liquid bait as a surfactant, or the placement of a sticky card within the trap, results in more fly captures. Drosophila suzukii present in Tahiti & Moorea., https://www.ippc.int/en/countries/french-polynesia/pestreports/2017/07/drosophila-suzukii-present-a-tahiti-moorea/, Freda P J, Braverman J M, 2013. ACV-baited traps are not always a reliable indicator of relative crop risk and it raises the possibility that traps baited with ACV are less attractive than natural ripe hosts. Recent papers suggested D. biarmipes is the sister taxon of D. suzukii (Yang et al., 2011; Chiu et al., 2013; Ometto et al., 2013; Rota Stabelli et al., 2013), in accordance with previous findings (Kopp and True, 2002; Barmina and Kopp, 2007); however, Prud’homme et al. In: Ecofruit. 33 (1), 61-70. Annual Report of the Society of Plant Protection of North Japan, No. Lethmayer C, 2011. ©Dr Gevork Arakelian/Dept. Belgian Journal of Zoology, 142(2):143-146, NAPPO, 2010. Detailed information about the biology of D. suzukii is available in Kanzawa (1935). Drosophila suzukii. Acta Horticulturae [II International Organic Fruit Symposium, Leavenworth, Washington, USA. Consequently there are neither official limits on the movement of host crops from infested areas, nor coordinated actions for monitoring its presence in new areas. Research into the Fruit-fly Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Preliminary Report). The melanogaster group is further divided into species subgroups, one of which (the suzukii subgroup) comprises, together with 6 other subgroups, the ‘oriental lineage’ (Kopp and True, 2002; Schawaroch, 2002; van der Linde et al., 2010).Relationships between and within these subgroups are still far from being resolved, and the suzukii subgroup itself is commonly regarded as polyphyletic (Kopp and True, 2002). Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide. Journal of Applied Entomology. The first records of the invasive pest Drosophila suzukii in the South American continent. NAPPO. Annual Report of the Kanto-Tosan Plant Protection Society, No.52:99-101, Kehrli P, Hohn H, Baroffio C, Fischer S, 2012. http://www.daff.gov.au/__data/.../Final-PRA-report-Drosophila-suzukii.pdf? (2012). Oviposition generally occurs from April to November. These findings suggest the possibility of control of D. suzukii based on pathogens. It is a native of Asia and was first detected in California in 2008. D. suzukii, as a fruit-specialist species among drosophilid flies, performs seasonal migration between low altitudes, which can be resource-poor in the summer, and high altitudes, where it is thought to exploit further resources (Mitsui et al., 2010). Bionomics of the cherry drosophila, Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in Fukushima Prefecture [Honshu]. In such cases, a final determination should be made by a taxonomist, based on the relative size of spermatheca compared to the size of the ovipositor (Hauser, 2011). Nils Hiebert, Tessa Carrau, Merle Bartling, Andreas Vilcinskas, Kwang-Zin Lee, Identification of entomopathogenic bacteria associated with the invasive pest Drosophila suzukii in infested areas of Germany, Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 10.1016/j.jip.2020.107389, (107389), (2020). Fruit infestation symptoms are described by Walton et al. Rome, Italy: FAO, IPPC, 2013. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 108(2):117-129. http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1093/aesa/sau014, Lee JC, Shearer PW, Barrantes LD, Beers EH, Burrack HJ, Dalton DT, Dreves AJ, Gut LJ, Hamby KA, Haviland DR, Isaacs R, Nielsen AL, Richardson T, Rodriguez-Saona CR, Stanley CA, Walsh DB, Walton VM, Yee WL, Zalom FG, Denny Bruck JDJ, 2013. (Presenza di Drosophila suzukii su uve in fruttai nel Veronese.) Journal of Integrated Pest Management, 2(1):G1-G7, Walton V, Lee J, Bruck D, Dreves A, 2010. ], 70:121-128, Grassi A, Maistri S, 2013. 29-33. http://www.ctifl.fr, Manduric S, 2017. Spinosyns, formulated as a bait, are also available for both conventional and organic fruit production, but are not highly effective for D. suzukii (Walsh et al., 2011). 2011, Atallah et al. 136 (1/2), 139-147. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1439-0418 DOI:10.1111/j.1439-0418.2010.01583.x. 2013). Journal of Applied Entomology, 138(7):519-527. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1439-0418, Tochen S, Dalton DT, Wiman NG, Hamm C, Shearer PW, Walton VM, 2014. It will be important to explore the relationships between D. suzukii and D. subpulchrella using genome scale data. h�bbd```b``��S�l{ɞ"����/�\�]"Y�����X�������O��3 �� Isaacs R, Hahn N, Tritten B, Garcia-Salazar C, 2010. Martin Cooper via CC BY 2.0. Infestation of wild and ornamental noncrop fruits by Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Spotted Wing Drosophila (Drosophila suzukii). Entomopathogenic fungi such as Isaria fumosorosea and Metarhizium anisopliae are also being assessed as potential biological control agents (Naranjo-Lázaro et al., 2014). Additionally, a synthetic chemical lure provided from a controlled release dispenser should remain an attractive bait for longer and would be more selective against non-target insects (Landolt et al. It attacks a range of soft skinned fruit and reduces crop yield and quality through direct feeding damage and secondary infection of … EPPO (online). Pest Management Science, 67:1386-1395, Bellamy DE, Sisterson MS, Walse SS, 2013. Field trails with pyrethrins and spinosad have a degree of efficacy and short pre-harvest interval, but residual impact is limited to a few days (Walsh et al., 2011; Grassi et al., 2011; Profaizer et al., 2012). IOBC/WPRS Bulletin. It is a single taxonomic entity. Journal of Economic Entomology, 106(4):1932-1937, Andreazza F, Haddi K, Oliveira E E, Ferreira J A M, 2016. A recently extensive study on seasonal life cycles and food resources of D. suzukii from low to high altitudes in central Japan (Mitsui et al., 2010) confirmed that D. suzukii emerges almost only from fruits. Spotted wing drosophila (SWD), Drosophila suzukii, is an insect pest of economically valuable small fruit and tree fruit crops.Known in Oregon and the Pacific Northwest since about 2009, this species now appears to be established in many fruit growing regions around the … Adults: Florida is home to at least 27 addiional Drosophila spp. The pupae are spindle-shaped, reddish-brown and bear two stalks with small finger-like projections, 3.5 mm long and 1.2 mm wide). Belgian Journal of Zoology. Nets can help prevent damage, but we are also looking for other methods to help fruit growers in their fight against this exotic species. Atti Giornate Fitopatologiche, 1:229-235, Prud'homme B, Gompel N, Rokas A, Kassner VA, Williamst M, Yeh SD, True JR, Carroll SB, 2006. DOI:10.1653/024.100.0131, Steck G J, 2009. HTTP://www.scielo.br/rbent DOI:10.1590/S0085-56262014000400004. as host plant of D. suzukii, but this latest observation has not been confirmed in Europe. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. Drosophila suzukii. Moreover, the efficacy of the current available insecticides against D. suzukii larvae within fruits is limited, and D. suzukii control is focused on treatments based on chemicals targeting adults (Cini et al., 2012). D. suzukii adults are 2-3 mm long with red eyes, a pale brown or yellowish brown thorax and black transverse stripes on the abdomen. Seasonal life cycles and resource uses of flower- and fruit-feeding drosophilid flies (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in central Japan. Informatore Agrario. 46:164-166, Schawaroch V, 2002. Both Leptopilina parasitoids displayed high parasitism rates on D. suzukii, but because of the strong immune response of the host larvae, they did not give rise to an adult wasp (Chabert et al., 2012). Non-crop plants used as hosts by Drosophila suzukii in Europe. Biological Invasions, 10(4):391-398, Weydert C, Mandrin JF, Bourgouin B, 2012. A review of the invasion of Drosophila suzukii in Europe and a draft research agenda for integrated pest management. 8th International Conference on Integrated Fruit Production, Kusadasi, Turkey, 7-12 October 2012. Unlike most other vinegar flies that require damaged fruit to attack, SWD causes damage when the female flies cut a slit and lay eggs in healthy fruit. he spotted wing drosophila (Drosophila suzukii), a native of Southeast Asia, is a pest of berry and stone fruits. 70 (27), 53-56. http://www.informatoreagrario.it. body length 2.6-2.8mm. The suzuki-fruit fly Drosophila suzukii, a new pest of fruit in the Netherlands. Cherry Drosophila, a new pest in our fruit crops. In the same studies, neonicotinoids organic pyrethroid (pyrethrin) and azadiractin provided from moderate to low control, with significantly higher levels of male mortality (Bruck et al., 2011; Beers et al., 2011). D. suzukii is an economically damaging pest because the females are able to infest thin-skinned fruits before harvest and the larvae destroy the fruit pulp by feeding. Distribution, abundance and host association of two parasitoid species attacking frugivorous drosophilid larvae in central Japan. Journal of Yunnan Agricultural University. When taking into consideration current crop levels, input costs, fruit drop due to machinery rubbing against fruit canopies and loss due to D. suzukii infection, the annual costs to control D. suzukii in Oregon’s affected small fruit industries ranged between $12 and$16 million dollars annually, depending on the level of infestation that season (Julian et al., 2011). 1. h��Wmo�8�+�K�E:"%�"�(��v������f�>�6kkK>[�6���Jv�8v�^q���I���h�<3iCi#!�B��H�y@V�,� �@*���fY茕A'2It�1�Ŧ2*�0"�Pq=R���W�WIL[�R�P��!c�W�^ÛJ68a����#� The efficacy of these pesticides against D. suzukii is lower than organophosphates and pyrethroids. European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. In: ESA 59th Annual Meeting, 2011 November 13-16, Reno, Nevada, USA, Bruck DJ, Bolda M, Tanugoshi L, Klick J, Kleiber J, DeFrancesco J, Gerdeman B, Spitler H, 2011. DAFF. Növényvédelem. Proceedings for the conference, Hohenheim, Germany, 20-22 February 2012. PloS One, 7(4), Kai H, Zhang WX, Carson HL, 1993. Pest name : Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) 8 - Does the name you have given for the organism correspond to a single taxonomic entity which can be adequately distinguished from other entities of the same rank? Protezione delle Colture. 98 (3), 987-988. http://www.bioone.org/loi/flen DOI:10.1653/024.098.0332, Lavrinienko A, Kesäniemi J, Watts P C, Serga S, Pascual M, Mestres F, Kozeretska I, 2017. Drosophila suzukii. (Un nouveau ravageur des fruits: Drosophila suzukii. Field evaluation of different trapping methods of cherry fruit fly, Drosophila suzukii. Drosophila suzukii. Later, it was confirmed present in Europe where it was also attacking a range of fresh fruits. Annals of Agrarian Science. Pesticidi i Fitomedicina. Spotted-wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is originally from Asia, and in the last decade it has become a global economic pest of small fruits and cherries. Pansa M G, Frati S, Baudino M, Tavella L, Alma A, 2011. Integrated Plant Protection Center. Since 2008 it has spread rapidly throughout the temperate regions of North America and Europe, due to global trade and the initial lack of regulation over the spread of any Drosophila. (2012) stated that D. suzukii was able to spread approximately 1400 km in one year, but they could not say if the dispersion was active or passive via infested fruits. Insects of the protected areas of the town of San Giuliano Terme (Insetti delle aree protette del comune di San Giuliano Terme). 155 0 obj <> endobj University of California - IPM online. In Canada, D. suzukii spread rapidly in 2010. However, the adult males differ from other native Drosophila males in that they possess a dark spot along the front edge of the wing near the … SAD, Revija za Sadjarstvo, Vinogradnistvo in Vinarstvo, 22(3):3-, Sidorenko VS, 1992. Research into the Fruit-fly Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Preliminary Report). 61 (1), 73-80. http://actazool.nhmus.hu/61/1/ActaZH_2015_Vol_61_1_73.pdf. 15th International Conference on Organic Fruit-Growing. Experientia, 35:1327-1328, Gerdeman BS, Tanigoshi LK, 2011. Traps baited with different baits have been proposed for detecting adults in the field. Spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii, a fruit pest in the United States. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, Wallingford, UK: CABI. Detailed morphological description of each stage is given by Kanzawa (1935). Kiss B, Lengyel G, Nagy Z, Kárpáti Z, 2013. Bionomics of the cherry drosophila, Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in Fukushima Prefecture [Honshu]. Infestation in cherry initially is manifested by scars in the fruit surface left by ovipositing females. (Gefhrliche Fliegen fur Apfel & Co.) Bessers Obst, 12:4-5, Lin FJ, Tseng HC, Lee WY, 1977. Scattered fruit trees, abandoned orchards, unmanaged host plants in private gardens or in nearby woodland should be considered potential sources of infestation and the associated risk of crop damage should be included in the management program. The first detection and spread of D. suzukii in Europe was detailed by Cini et al. Drosophila suzukii. 30 (1), 35-40. Toševski I, Milenković S, Krstić O, Kosovac A, Jakovljević M, Mitrović M, Cvrković T, Jović J, 2014. Drosophila suzukii is a quarantine pest that is included on the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (EPPO) A2 List. https://www.fdacs.gov/content/download/66350/file/pest_alert_-_spotted_wing_drosophila_-_drosophila_suzukii.pdf, Thistlewood H, Shearer P W, Steenwyk B van, Walton V, Acheampong S, 2012. Nils Hiebert, Tessa Carrau, Merle Bartling, Andreas Vilcinskas, Kwang-Zin Lee, Identification of entomopathogenic bacteria associated with the invasive pest Drosophila suzukii in infested areas of Germany, Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 10.1016/j.jip.2020.107389, (107389), (2020). 95-97. EPPO Alert List. Gefhrliche fly on apple., 12 (Gefhrliche Fliegen fur Apfel & Co) Bessers Obst. Drosophila suzukii. Drosophila (Sophophora) suzukii (Matsumura). Comparisons among different trap design (size, colour, volatilization area, entry area) have been performed across different regions and crops in North America (Lee et al., 2012; 2013). 142 (2), 143-146. The lifespan of adults is 20-56 days, but some overwintering adults lived for more than 200 days (Kanzawa, 1935). Oriental Insects, 25:69-94, Tosevski I, Milenkovic S, Krstic O, Kosovac A, Jakovljevic M, Mitrovic M, Cvrkovic T, Jovic J, 2014. ], No.1001:147-152. http://www.actahort.org/books/1001/1001_15.htm, Kopp A, True JR, 2002. Identification and immuno-electron microscopy localization of p40, a protein component of immunosuppressive virus-like particles from Leptopilina heterotoma, a virulent parasitoid wasp of Drosophila. First record of the invasive pest Drosophila suzukii in Ukraine indicates multiple sources of invasion. Spotted Wing Drosophila Drosophila suzukii. In: Ministry of Agriculture and Food, Ontario, Canada: Ministry of Agriculture and Food. The wing spots of D. subpulchrella are particularly similar in shape and position to those of D. suzukii. Pest Alert: Spotted Wing Drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsurmura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), a fruit pest new to North America., USA: Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry 114 (3), 329-337. http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.4289/0013-8797.114.3.329 DOI:10.4289/0013-8797.114.3.329, Mandrin J F, Weydert C, Trottin-Caudal Y, 2010. Acca sellowiana (Myrtaceae): a new alternative host for Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in Brazil. The D. suzukii genome is comparable in size and repeat content to other Drosophila species. Parasitoid wasps target Drosophila spp. In 2008 economic losses (based on maximum reported yield losses) for California, Oregon and Washington were estimated at 40% for blueberries, 50% for caneberries, 33% for cherries and 20% for strawberries. He described the eggs as half transparent, milky white, and glossy, with transparency increasing and the developing larva becoming visible toward emergence. Drosophila suzukii has subsequently been confirmed as present in Canada (British Columbia) (NAPPO 2010a) and the USA (California, Florida, Oregon and Washington) (NAPPO 2010b) … A historic account of the invasion of Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in the continental United States, with remarks on their identification. They grow throughout three larval stages and when fully grown can reach 5.5 mm long and 0.8 mm wide. 16 (4), 464-465. Pupae period lasts between 4 and 43 days. Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae): a pest species new to Belgium. Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilida) Spotted wing drosophila female feeding on water droplet (E. Beers, December 2010) The spotted wing drosophila is an invasive pest from Asia, first discovered in California in 2008. Ostojić I, Zovko M, Petrović D, 2014. The susceptibility of small fruits and cherries to the spotted-wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii. Spotted Wing Drosophila (Cherry Vinegar Fly) Drosophila suzukii; damage to cherry fruit from female oviposition. Southwestern Entomologist. FAO, 2017. NAPPO. 2014), Drosophila generally prefer to breed in fruit that is already decaying and fermenting.SWD is a highly polyphagous pest that breeds in a wide variety of … The oviposition scar exposes the fruit to secondary attack by pathogens and other insects, which may cause rotting (Hauser et al., 2009; Walton et al., 2010). Furthermore, all the analyses support a close genetic relationship between D. suzukii and D. biarmipes but a low nucleotide substitution rate in comparison with the lineage leading to D. biarmipes (Yang et al., 2012; Chiu et al., 2013; Ometto et al., 2013). Resistance of Drosophila suzukii to the larval parasitoids Leptopilina heterotoma and Asobara japonica is related to haemocyte load. The majority of drosophilids including the best known Drosophila melanogaster only breed on decaying fruits. 2 (1), G1-G7. Journal of Applied Entomology, 136(1/2):139-147, Caprile J, Flint ML, Bolda MP, Grant JA, Steenwyk RVan, Haviland D, 2013. glasshouse production), Managed forests, plantations and orchards, Average temp. The spotted wing drosophila (SWD) is a fruit fly orginally from Asia, was found in Hawaii in the 1980s, in California in 2008, in Michigan in 2010 and in Maine in 2012. Journal of Applied Entomology, 137(8):561-570, BCMA, 2013. 2012). Laboratory survival of Drosophila suzukii under simulated winter conditions of the Pacific Northwest and seasonal field trapping in five primary regions of small and stone fruit production in the United States. Drosophila suzukii in Michigan vineyards, and the first report of Zaprionus indianus from this region. Journal of Economic Entomology. Spotted Wing Drosophila—Drosophila suzukii . Adult longevity decreases progressively at a constant temperature below 10°C (Dalton et al., 2011). Ontario, Canada: Ministry of Agriculture and Food. No reproductive behaviour was observed during laboratory experiments where D. suzukii was kept for the entire life cycle at temperatures below 10°C (Mitsui et al., 2010; Tochen et al., 2014). It is now widespread in Coastal and Interior fruit growing areas of B.C. Genetics Research, 92:25-38, Lue ChiaHua, Mottern JL, Walsh GC, Buffington ML, 2017. Invasive drosophilid pests Drosophila suzukii and Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in Veracruz, Mexico. Journal of General Virology, 87(2):461-470, Chiu JC, Jiang X, Zhao L, Hamm CA, Cridland JM, Saelao P, Hamby KA, Lee EK, Kwok RS, Zhang G, Zalom FG, Walton VM, Begun DJ, 2013. EPPO Global Database. Spotted wing drosophila (SWD), Drosophila suzukii, is a fruit fly first found in 2008 damaging fruit in many California counties.It infests ripening cherries throughout the state and ripening raspberry, blackberry, blueberry, and strawberry crops, especially in coastal areas. Spotted Wing Drosophila (SWD), is one of the few species of Drosophilidae known to be a pest of healthy, unripe fruit (Walsh et al. Given its very rapid spread in Europe and North America in recent years, it seem likely that D. suzukii will continue to expand its range in these continents to some extent. Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae): Invasive pest of ripening soft fruit expanding its geographic range and damage potential. Terra Trentina, 55(10):19-23, Gueguen G, Rajwani R, Paddibhatla I, Morales J, Govind S, 2011. The number of captures increased as the entry area of traps increased, but small size of the holes slowed evaporation and increased the selectivity against the larger insects. In California alone, the estimated decrease of the gross revenue due to D. suzukii infestation in the absence of management has been estimated at 37% for raspberry and 20% for processed strawberries (Goodhue et al., 2011). Spotted wing drosophila - Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura). Emergency mitigation measures include cold treatment or carbon dioxide/sulphur dioxide fumigation of host fruit when exporting from an infested country to an area free of D. suzukii (DAFF, 2013). A supermatrix based molecular phylogeny of the family Drosophilidae. Mortality of flies exposed to cyazypyr was relatively low after 16 hours but caused intermediate mortality after 40 hours. This species is included in the EPPO A2 List as recommended to be included amongst the species in phytosanitary quarantine. Dros. Drosophila suzukii attacking commercial fruit in Western USA were confirmed by an Oregon Department of Agriculture pest alert (ODA 2009). Ecological, morphological and molecular studies on Ganaspis individuals (Hymenoptera: Figitidae) attacking Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Spotted Wing Drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Dip. 11 (5), 377-382. http://www.hdbz.hr, Mori N, Marchesini E, 2014. Oregon, USA: Oregon State University Extension Service, Westphal MI, Browne M, MacKinnon K, Noble I, 2008. http://www.pestalert.org/oprDetail.cfm?oprID=507, Naranjo-Lázaro J M, Mellín-Rosas M A, González-Padilla V D, Sánchez-González J A, Moreno-Carrillo G, Arredondo-Bernal H C, 2014. Final pest risk analysis report for Drosophila suzukii. Drosophilidae of the Garhwal region with the description of one new species. Bait is needed to attract the flies to the trap. 20-27. New and interesting records of Drosophilidae (Diptera) from the Czech Republic and Slovakia. A. Ministry of Agriculture and Food.
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